Prostate Cancer - Treatments, Symptoms, Causes

Prostate Cancer - Treatments, Symptoms, Causes

What is Prostate Cancer? What are the causes and treatment options?

Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland, which is a small gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, with over 248,530 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2021 alone.

Localized prostate cancer is when the cancer is contained within the prostate gland and has not spread to other body parts. Advanced prostate cancer is when cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, lymph nodes, or other organs.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, prostate cancer may not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, as cancer grows, it can cause a range of symptoms, including:

  • Urinary problems include a weak stream, frequent urination, or difficulty urinating.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area, back, hips, or legs.
  • Erectile dysfunction or difficulty getting or maintaining an erection.
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet.

Causes and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer 

The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but certain factors can increase the risk of developing the disease. These risk factors include:

  • Age - prostate cancer is more common in older men.
  • Family history - men with a family history of prostate cancer are at a higher risk.
  • Ethnicity - African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than men of other ethnicities.
  • Diet - a diet high in red meat and dairy products may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Treatments for Prostate Cancer

Treatment for prostate cancer will depend on several factors, including the stage of cancer, the patient's age and overall health, and any other medical conditions. Some common treatments for prostate cancer include:

  • Active surveillance - for low-risk prostate cancer, the doctor may choose to monitor cancer rather than treat it immediately.
  • Surgery - the prostate gland may be removed in a prostatectomy procedure
  • Radiation therapy - high-energy radiation may be used to destroy cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy - medications may be used to reduce the amount of testosterone in the body, which can help slow the growth of cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy - medications may be used to kill cancer cells.
  • Immunotherapy - drugs that help the immune system fight cancer cells.
  • Targeted therapy - drugs that target specific molecules in cancer cells.

Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer:

Immunotherapy is another targeted therapy that is increasingly used to treat prostate cancer. This type of therapy uses drugs that help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. Immunotherapy can be particularly effective for advanced prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Molecular Therapy for Prostate Cancer 

Molecular therapy is a type of targeted therapy becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of prostate cancer. This therapy involves using drugs that target specific molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. Some examples of molecular therapies used to treat the body’s testosterone inhibitors - these drugs target the PARP enzyme involved in repairing DNA. Prostate cancer cells with mutations in the BRCA genes may be more vulnerable to PARP inhibitors.

  • PD-1 inhibitors help the immune system recognize and attack cancels.
  • LHRH agonists and antagonists - these drugs lower the testosterone amount. Still, molecularly slow the growth of cancer cells.


In conclusion, prostate cancer is common cancer that affects men. Symptoms may not appear until the cancer has advanced, so men must receive regular prostate exams to detect cancer early. Treatment options for prostate cancer vary depending on the stage and characteristics of cancer, but molecular therapies are becoming an increasingly important part of the treatment plan for prostate cancer. Molecular therapies offer a more targeted approach to cancer treatment, which can reduce the risk of side effects that are often associated with other treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Clinical trials are also an important option for men with prostate cancer who have not succeeded with standard therapies. With early detection and advanced treatment options, the prognosis for prostate cancer patients is improving.